The eight themes in this report were arrived at through a series of consultations with practitioners and experts in integrated land use as well as a careful review of the literature. In taking stock of what efforts have been taken where; the critical challenges faced by these programs; and the evolving best practices from initiatives worldwide, certain activities central to integrated land use initiatives were identified.
Categorizing these core activities by their function has enabled the identification of eight interconnected themes, which provide a lens through which to describe, analyze, and evaluate existing integrated land use approaches. These themes are: multistakeholder engagement (MSE); environmental focus; economic focus; boundary setting; land tenure; financing strategies; monitoring, evaluation, and learning (MEL); and cross-sectoral coordination.
We selected the eight major themes as being the most significant ones during the consultation process; these themes build upon one another. The order roughly follows the order of considerations that need to be made from the program planning stage, to implementation, to reporting. However, integrated land use initiatives are highly participatory and iterative; constant reconsideration and reassessment of each theme is needed throughout the program’s lifecycle. Of course, many additional themes—for example, technology, governance, adaptive management, and policies—are essential elements in many initiatives.